Selected Solar Observations May 2022

By Monty Leventhal OAM

My first significant observation was made on the 2nd May which made me think my predictions in April for increased activity will come about.

Four groups of Sunspots were seen; a single Hsx spot in AR (Active Region) 12999, another in AR13000, a Bxi group in AR13003 & another Bxo group in AR13004.

A bright red spot was observed on the SE limb which no reference was made to by anyone.

Four Filaments were also seen, marked in blue with one Plage.

On the fifth a Esi group of spots was seen in AR13004 & new single Axx spot was observed in AR13006. Both of these groups showed some very minor Flaring.

By the 9th my predictions of increased activity was shot down in flames as Sunspot activity had decreased to two groups. The single Hsx spot in AR13007 was new.

I would like to point out here that the AAVSO consider a single spot is a group where the BAA consider it as single spot.

An unconnected Arch Prominence on the SW limb reached a height of about 93,000km.

Due to consistent bad weather no observations were made until the 15th when two new very complicated groups were observed in the north & south eastern quadrants. At this stage my AR numbers were not accurate.

A broken arched Prominence on the NW limb reached a height of about 74,000km.

On the 16th Sunspot and Prominence activity seemed to be increasing once again.

On this day four groups of Sunspots were observed, a Dki group was seen in AR13007, a single Hsx spot in AR1310, a Eso group in AR13015 and another new single Hsx spot in AR13016.

Prominences were becoming more active with a detached Prominence on the NW limb reaching a height of about 140,000km.

On the 17th the group in AR13015 on the 16th had now become two groups AR13014/5 which now become a Dsi and Csi.

On the SE limb a broken arch Prominence with a curved pillar Prominence reached an approximate height of 65,000km and on the NE limb a mound type prominence reached a height of 56,000km x 121,000km along the limb.

On the 18th 6 groups were observed, the most so far for the month of May.

A new single Hsx spot was seen in what I believe was AR13019. This was not confirmed as no further observation were made until the 24th due to bad weather.

On the 24th I observed seven large Filaments on the face of the Sun.

As I have mentioned before Filaments are the same as Prominences which come up in sheet form. An example of this is the hedgerow Prominence stretching across the limb for 205,000km shown in the SW. If this rotated onto the face of the Sun and we looked down on it, it would show as a black line, as indicated in blue on my diagram.

The same Prominence on the following day now stretched for about 298,000km on the limb and can now still be seen as the Sun rotates from east to west where eventually the equator will be straight across the face of the Sun. The Prominence would be see as a black line on the other side of the Sun but of course not visible to us.

On the 27th a new single Hsx spot was observed close to the limb in the SE in AR13024.

In the SW a column type Prominence reached a height of about 93,000km & a little further north was a thick single arch Prominence stretching across the limb for approximately 158,000km.

My last observation for the month showed a drop in Sunspot activity. All that could be seen was a Cki group in AR12023 a Hsx spot in AR13024 and a Bxi group in AR13026.

A nice single arched Prominence was observed on the NE limb reaching an approximate height of 47,000km.

Summing up, sunspot activity for solar cycle 25 in May 2022 has become more active with Prominences & Filaments becoming stronger too. No Flares were seen during my watch of 8am to 10am local time during May.

The most Sunspots seen on one day was 26 in 5 groups on the 17th & the most groups seen on one day was on the 18th with 6 groups which included only 19 Sunspots.

18 daily observations were made. The remaining 13 days were cloud covered and/or rain.

A total 24 areas of Plage, a total of 2 Flares were observed for the month.

The relevant sunspot number for the month was 45 and the average CV number was 52.5.

My forecast for the month of June is a further increase in Sunspot and Flare activity and an increase with stronger & brighter Prominences. (weather permitting)

Monty Leventhal OAM.